Currently, the most widely used piezoelectric ceramic is based on the lead zirconate titanate system. As the perovskite structure of this system is very tolerant to element substitution (doping), specific additives are included to give each composition its unique dielectric, piezoelectric and physical properties for use in different applications.

Due to the doped materials, piezoelectric ceramics are usually divided into two groups, i.e. soft and hard.  The soft piezoelectric ceramics have higher electrical coupling coefficient, lower coercive field a low mechanical quality factor (Qm).  It can provide relatively large strain output, making it suitable for flow meter, level sensor, sensing and actuation applications.

The hard piezoelectric ceramics have lower electrical coupling coefficient, higher coercive field and a high mechanical quality factor (Qm). It is often used in high-power applications, e.g. ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasonic welding, ultrasonic machining…etc.

Unictron manufactures a range of lead zirconate titanate materials (soft and hard) as well as barium titanate and lead titanate materials.  Characteristics of the material we offered are shown is the Table below.